Glossary of Terms
The A-Z of Crane Industry Terms
Abnormal operating conditions
Environmental conditions such as extreme weather conditions, corrosive fumes and wet, dusty or icy conditions which are unfavourable, harmful or detrimental to or for the operation of a crane. This includes working from barges.
A machine system that is dependent on compressed air.
An instrument for measuring and indication the force or speed of the wind.
Prevents two or more cranes operating on the same runway from colliding with each other and / or damage when approaching the end of the runway.
Anti two-block warning device
A device that provides an audible warning to the crane operator when the hook block reaches a designated limit on the hoist line.
Anti two-block cut out
A cut out device that activates when the hook block goes past the designated limit and is at risk of hitting the boom head. It prevents any further upward movement of the hook block.
Approved codes of practice - industry specific statements of preferred work practices. Examples include Approved Code of Practice for:
A device fitted to a crane to provide the operator with automatic warning of approach to an overload situation.
See Outrigger blocking.
Boatswain’s chair / bosun’s chair
A seat attached to a suspended rope designed to accommodate one person in a sitting position.
A cantilevered structure from which a load is suspended.
Boom angle indicator
A device that shows the angle of inclination of luffing (derricking) boom.
Means a device fitted to the crane to prevent whip back.
A crane is boom bound when its movements are restricted due to proximity hazards or structures. The crane operator may be unable to boom up, boom down, slew left, slew right, extend boom, retract boom or any combination of these.
The result of increasing load weight being suspended from the boom causing the boom to deflect (Turn away or bend). The result is an increase in the cranes actual working radius.
The main travelling structure of the crane that spans the width of the bay. The bridge consists of two end trucks and one or more bridge girders depending on the equipment type.
Bridge Engineering Self Supervision (BESS)
An approval given by NZTA to a company that has nominated competent crane operators or drivers to enable them to carry out self bridge supervision as set out in the vehicles Mass and Dimension Rule and NZTA’s Overweight Permit Policy.
The main horizontal beam of the crane bridge that supports the trolley. It is supported by the end trucks.
Devices used in mobile cranes to assist the operator determine if the crane is level. Also known as Circular Inclinometer Levels.
The vehicle that the mobile crane is built and positioned on.
Centre of gravity (COG)
The point in an object around which its weight is evenly distributed.
Certificate of Inspection (COI)
A certificate issued or renewed (annually) under regulation 32 of the PECPR regulations that complies with regulation 33 of the PECPR regulations. In the case ofan in-house inspection body, the certificate may take the form of a computer record created by the body on the recommendation of the equipment inspector. All operational cranes must have a current COI that is clearly displayed.
Chartered Professional Engineer (CPEng)
Means a person who is registered and holds a current registration certificate under the Chartered Professional Engineers of New Zealand Act 2002.
A concrete element used for civil purposes.
Consolidated firm ground which is capable of accepting the weight of the machine, attachments and load without significant deformation.
A person who has acquired, through a combination qualifications, training or experience, the knowledge and skills to perform the task required.
A complex lift is a non-routine crane lift requiring detailed planning and unusual or additional safety precautions. Complex lifts may include: irregular loads or loads with unusual weight distribution (centre of gravity), using one or more cranes (winches), a lift with less than the recommended multi-crane safety factors, a lift out of view of the crane operator, technically difficult rigging, lifting personnel, lifting hazardous materials, lifting submerged loads, lifting with no or partial outriggers, lifting on rubber or any lift the crane operator feels should be classed as such. Complex lifts may require planning by an engineer or similarly competent person.
Under the PECPR regulations, means a person who is the owner, lessee, sub lessee, or bailee of any equipment in a place of work.
Can be cab controlled or remote controlled.
All levers, brakes, switches, buttons and other devices that the crane operator physically manipulates.
Heavy metal or concrete attachments found at the back end of the crane boom. Used to counter balance the effect of the load weight suspended from the crane hook.
Reference: Schedule 1 Health and Safety in Employment (Pressure Equipment, Cranes and Passenger Ropeways) Regulations 1999
(1) A powered device –
(a) That is equipped with mechanical means for raising or lowering loads suspended by means of a hook or other load-handling device; and (b) That can, by the movement of the whole device or of it boom, jib trolley or other such part, re-position or move suspended loads both vertically and horizontally; and
(2) Includes all parts of the crane down to and including the hook or load-handling device, and all chains, rails, ropes, wires or other devices used to move the hook or load handling device.
(3) Includes the attachments, fittings, foundations, mountings and supports: but
(4) Does not include lifting gear that is not an integral part of the crane.
Crane log book
A book used by the operator to record information such as damage and repair, inspection, maintenance, site locations and hours worked.
Crane rating chart
Detail the maximum weight (total load) that a crane can safely lift at any given radius, boom length, boom angle or boom configuration. Crane rating charts include crane rating, range diagrams and notes / conditions.
Crane rating charts are different for each make, model and type of crane and crane configuration and are based on ideal operating conditions.
All cranes must carry a crane rating chart. Also known as load charts, rating charts, rating capacity charts and rated load capacity charts.
Crane rating sheet
A notice fitted on or attached to a crane stating the maximum safe working load (SWL) for the crane in specified operating conditions. Crane rating sheets may also be produced in a book format.
A person who has acquired, through a combination of training, qualification or experience, the knowledge and skills to operate a particular type of crane controlled.
Slows the crane down regardless of what control is being pressed when a travelling crane is approaching the end of the runway, to prevent end stop collision or over run.
Markings on the crane, visible to the operator, that indicate directions of operation, and are the same directions as those labelled on the controls.
A person qualified to sling loads and direct the lifting and placing operations of a crane.
Electrically insulated platform
A crane lifted or fixed platform that has been designed to be electrically insulated.
Located on either side of the span. The end trucks house the wheels on which the entire crane travels. These wheels ride on the runway beam allowing access to the entire length of the bay.
Engineered lift plans
Are generally lift plans for complex lifts. They may follow a similar format to a lift plan but they will generally be more detailed and / or technical in their content. They are usually developed by an engineer or similarly competent person. See also Lift Plans.
A state of rest or balance due to the equal action of opposing forces.
Cranes, including the attachments, fittings, foundations, mountings and supports of cranes, and plant used in connection with cranes.
An inspection carried out by an equipment inspector that:
1. Is carried out to determine whether equipment is safe and is likely to remain safe, and
2. Takes place in one or more of the following periods:
(a) The period in which the equipment, or its component parts, is manufactured,
(b) The period after the manufacture and before the commissioning of equipment,
(c) The period after the commissioning of equipment,
(d) The period after a repair or alteration to which regulation 11 of the PECPR regulations apply,
(e) The period after maintenance, or an adjustment, alteration or repair to which the regulation 13 of the PECPR Regulations apply.
The standing area or structure supporting the lifted load, when landed.
Factor of Safety (FOS – for lifting equipment)
The ratio between the minimum specified breaking load and the SWL.
Fixed / pendulum work platform
A platform fixed to the boom of the crane or one that operates as a pendulum fixed to the boom ofthe crane.
A load directly supported by a rigid lifting attachment e.g. fork tyne, bucket or grab, connected to the boom that prevents it from swinging.
A concrete flooring element cast off site in other than its final position.
Freely suspended load
A load which is attached, normally from above, to a lifting point normally by means of slings or chains. This is the load’s only connection to the machine and the load is free to swing about the lifting point in a pendulum motion.
Fully enclosed work platform
A platform that is fully enclosed for use without safety harnesses.
Hardware i.e. bolts, hooks, chains etc. used to secure or attach the loads in preparation for hoisting
Reference: Section 2 Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992 (See HSWA after April 2016)
Means an activity, arrangement, circumstance, event, occurrence, phenomenon, process, situation, or substance (whether arising or caused within or outside a place of work) that is an actual or potential cause or source of harm; and includes:
1) a situation where a person’s behaviour may be an actual or potential cause or source of harm to the person or another person;and
2) without limitation, a situation described in subparagraph (1) resulting from physical or mental fatigue, drugs, alcohol, traumatic shock, or another temporary condition that affects a person’s behaviour.
The hoist is mounted to the trolley and performs the actual lifting function via a hook or lifting attachment. There are two basic types of hoist – rope and chain.
The process of raising and lowering the load.
A device located at the end of the hoist line, containing sheaves or pulleys through which the hoist rope runs and a hook to which the load is attached.
HSE Act (HSEA)
The Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992, as amended in 2003.
HSW Act (HSWA)
The Health and Safety at Work Act 2015.
The Health and Safety in Employment Regulations 1995.
The Health and Safety at Work Regulations.
Any system that relies on pressurised oil to make it function.
The angle between two legs of a sling system. The greater the included angle, the less load weight can be lifted.
Inspection of body
1) An organisation currently recognised under regulation 25 of the PECPR Regulations 1999, and
2) In relation to a design verifier or equipment inspector, the inspection body by which the design verifier or equipment inspector is employed or engaged.
An Irregular load has one or more of the following factors:
- unequal weight distribution
- irregular shape
- offset or high centre of gravity
- unknown lifting points
An extension to the boom point to provide added boom length.
The process of positioning the crane so that it is level.
The maximum vertical distance (upper and lower) through which a load hook can travel.
In relation to a crane:
1) Means a device used:
(a) To attached the load to the hook or load-handling device, or
(b) To control the load independently of the hook or load-handling device, or
(c) As a container for the load, and
2) Includes lifting beams, lifting frames, spreaders or similar devices that are not an integral part of the crane.
Detail how to carry out simple or regular crane lifts. They are usually developed by the lift team or similarly competent people. Lift plans may be used as an addition to, or as an alternative to Job Safety Analysis (JSA) or Safe Method Statement.
See also Engineered lift plans.
An automatically activated switch to warn an operator or to stop a particular crane motion prior to reaching the extremity of operations.
See Crane rating charts.
In relation to a crane:
1) A device:
(a) That is an integral part of the crane, and
(b) That may substitute for the hook, and
2) Includes lifting beams, lifting frames and spreaders or similar devices, and associated chains, pins, pulley blocks, pulley frames, ropes, shackles, twist locks and wires.
Weighs the load and prevents lifting if the rating capacity of the crane would be exceeded.
The load multiplied by the horizontal distance (radius) from the centre of rotation to the hook.
Load moment indicator
A device that indicates the load moment.
Load moment limiter
A device, which is pre -set prior to operation, which limits the lifting capacity of a crane at any given configuration.
Shown on the crane rating chart, it is the distance from the centre / axis of rotation to the centreline of the vertical hoist line with the load freely suspended.
Load radius indicator
A device fitted on a crane that shows the distance to the hook measured from the centre of the slew.
Load rating charts
See Crane rating charts.
The process of placing an energy isolating device and / or warning tags on an item of defective equipment to stop other personnel from using that item of equipment until it has been checked and declared fit for use by a competent person.
Means changing the elevation angle of the crane boom/jib.
Hydraulic cylinders used to lift and lower the boom.
The ongoing care or upkeep of property or equipment. to keep it in proper working condition. Includes servicing.
1) Maintenance requirements provided by the manufacturer and
2) In-house inspections/checks carried out by the controller or their staff.
Where the manufacturer’s requirements are not available, advice must be obtained from (competent persons within) the industry.
Mobile mechanical plant which is able to be configured to lift or carry a suspended load. This definition includes “Fully”, “Semi”, “Portable” “Articulated” and “Truck” mobile cranes. For the purposes of the Approved Code of Practice, this definition also includes:
1) Forklifts and reach stackers configured to lift shipping containers.
2) Telehandlers or forklifts lifting and carrying a suspended load
3) Construction equipment, such as excavators configured with hooks or other lifting devices and used for purposes other than duties associated with primary function of the machine (e.g. other than placing of pipes in a trench).
The use of more than one crane to raise a single load.
Notifiable work (for piling)
Reference: Health and Safety in Employment Regulations 1995, Regulation 2.
Notifiable work includes, but is not limited to, construction work of one or more of the following kinds:
- Work using a lifting appliance where the appliance has to lift a mass of 500 kilograms or more a vertical distance of 5 metres or more, other than work using an excavator, a forklift, or a self-propelled mobile crane;
- Work in any pit, shaft, trench, or other excavation in which any person is required to work in a space more than 1.5 metres deep and having a depth greater than the horizontal width at the top;
- Work in any drive, excavation, or heading in which any person is required to work with a ground cover overhead;
- Work in any excavation in which any face has a vertical height of more than 5 metres and an average slope steeper than a ratio of 1 horizontal to 2 vertical.
Health and Safety at Work Act 2015.
In the HSWA, unless the context otherwise requires, officer, in relation to a PCBU,--
a) means, if the PCBU is--
(i) a company, any person occupying the position of a director of the company by whatever name called:
(ii) a partnership (other than a limited partnership), any partner:
(iii) a limited partnership, any general partner:
(iv) a body corporate or an unincorporated body, other than a company, partnership, or limited partnership, any person occupying a position in the body that is comparable with that of a director of a company; and
b) includes any other person occupying a position in relation to the business or undertaking that allows the person to exercise significant influence over the management of the business or undertaking (for example, a chief executive); but
c) does not include a Minister of the Crown acting in that capacity; and
d) to avoid doubt, does not include a person who merely advises or makes recommendations to a person referred to in paragraph (a) or (b).
In relation to equipment:
1) To use the equipment; and
2) Includes making the equipment available for use, whether by hiring or otherwise.
And “operation” has a corresponding meaning.
Documentation published by the manufacturer(s) that includes operating instructions, maintenance procedures, general specifications and other relevant data.
Structural members used to provide stability during crane operations.
Blocking placed under the outrigger feet. It increases the area of the ground over which pressure is exerted effectively reducing the ground bearing pressure under the outrigger.
Over lowering device
A winch cut out to prevent an excessive amount of wire rope from coming of a winch drum.
Any load greater than the rated load.
Overload limit device
A device that is part of the hoisting unit that interrupts the lift circuit when an attempt is made to exceed the safe working load of the hoist.
A device that prevents the crane from moving into an overload situation by stopping all load moment increasing functions.
A condition that can occur with lattice boom cranes when lowering a heavy load that has been lifted with the boom luffed back to its maximum angle / minimum radius.
The boom relaxes as the load is released and allows travel past the limit switches.
Over winching device
A winch cut out to prevent an excessive amount of wire rope spooling onto a winch drum.
Materials such as timber blocks or slotted rubber tubes used when rigging a load to protect the load and sling from damage.
Health and Safety at Work Act 2015.
In the HSWA, unless the context otherwise requires, a person conducting a business or undertaking or PCBU--
a) means a person conducting a business or undertaking--
(i) whether the person conducts a business or undertaking alone or with others; and
(ii) whether or not the business or undertaking is conducted for profit or gain; but
b) does not include--
(i) a person to the extent that the person is employed or engaged solely as a worker in, or as an officer of, the business or undertaking:
(ii) a volunteer association:
(iii) an occupier of a home to the extent that the occupier employs or engages another person solely to do residential work:
(iv) a statutory officer to the extent that the officer is a worker in, or an officer of, the business or undertaking:
(v) a person, or class of persons, that is declared by regulations not to be a PCBU for the purposes of this Act or any provision of this Act.
2) In the HSWA Section 2, volunteer association means a group of volunteers (whether incorporated or unincorporated) working together for 1 or more community purposes where none of the volunteers, whether alone or jointly with any other volunteers, employs any person to carry out work for the volunteer association.
The Health and Safety in Employment (Pressure Equipment, Cranes, and Passenger Ropeways) Regulations 1999.
A pendulum is a weight suspended from a pivot so that it can swing freely. When a pendulum is displaced sideways from its resting equilibrium position, it is subject to a restoring force due to gravity that will accelerate it back toward the equilibrium position. When released, the restoring force combined with the pendulum’s mass causes it to oscillate about the equilibrium position, swinging back and forth.
“Every action has an equal and opposite reaction” as per Sir Isaac Newton’s third law of physics. This applies to cranes as the “Pendulum Effect” where a load is moved on the end of a rope attached to a boom or gantry structure. As the load moves out of vertical an equal reaction by the boom or gantry structure is required to hold the load vertical or it will swing back the opposite way as a pendulum would creating a “Pendulum Effect”. This is important as a load no longer vertical to the boom or gantry structure may directly affect the load radius or induce side loading which can have a significant effect on both the crane’s structural strength and stability. See also Pendulum and Equilibrium.
A permit issued by a controlling authority which sets the criteria for travel on public roads, crossing bridges, etc. and / or for working the crane on a specific work site.
Pick and carry
The action of picking a suspended load and transporting it from one place to another.
Pick and place
The action of picking and lifting a freely suspended load into a location with the machine stationary.
A concrete element cast off site in other than its final position.
Principle of leverage
Loads are lifted by balancing the crane’s own weight at the tipping point (or tipping axis) against the weight of the load being lifted.
The horizontal distance from the reference line (e.g. centre of rotation of a slewing crane) to the load line (typically through the crane hook).
Regular Loads fall into one of the following categories:
- uniform weight distribution
- concentric loading
- regular proportions
- known lifting points
- repetitively lifted loads.
Provide information relating to the reach range of the crane. They enable the operator to establish the required radius, boom length, boom angle, and hook height for the lift being planned.
Use with a load chart to plan a lifting operation.
The maximum load capacity that a crane is designed to lift at a given radius measured in kilograms or tonnes.
Rated capacity indicator
See Safe load indicator
Rated load capacity charts
See Crane ratings charts.
Rating capacity charts
See Crane ratings charts.
See Crane rating charts.
The path of the rope between the hoist and the load block. The end result is even line pull on all sheaves.
Means a person qualified to sling loads and direct the lifting and placing operations of a crane.
Means the use of mechanical load-shifting equipment and associated gear to move, place or secure a load including plant, equipment, or members of a building or structure and to ensure the stability of those members, and for the setting up and dismantling of cranes and hoists, other than the setting up of a crane or hoist which only requires the positioning of external outriggers or stabilisers.
Details how the rigging on a regular or irregular load for will be carried out. They are usually developed by the lift team or similarly competent people such as a Dogman / Rigger. Rigging plans may be used as an addition to, or as an alternative to Job Safety Analysis (JSA) or Safe Method Statement.
A sling, rope or chain that is attached from the suspended load to the telescopic handler and the dogman to assist in preventing the pendulum motion of the suspended load.
Restraint line (tag line)
A rope of suitable strength, construction and length attached with an appropriate bend or hitch to the load, which is used to control the load during lifting or positioning.
Powered rotation of the hook / attachment. (Gantry cranes)
Beams fitted to the building or structure that support the runway rails that the end trucks run on.
On some cranes the runway beams may also support and be fitted with power conductors, used to provide a continuous power supply for the crane through sliding contacts.
Safe load indicator (SLI)
A safety device designed by the crane manufacturer to indicate the machines design limits.
The device provides a warning of the approach to the safe working load of the crane, and further warning when the safe working load has been exceeded. Also known as rated-capacity indicator or weight load indicator. See also automatic safe load indicator
A device, item or system that is used in or on a crane and which controls or monitors any aspect of the safety of the crane equipment and includes a safety relief device.
Safe working load (SWL) (Crane)
The maximum total load weight a crane can safely lift under specified conditions. The total load includes the load to be lifted, the hook and any other lifting equipment to be used. The safe working load is normally indicated by the safe load indicator (SLI).
Safe working load (SWL) (Rigging)
Every item of load lifting tackle and rigging equipment must be clearly and permanently marked with its SWL (Old) or WLL (New). The SWL indicates the maximum weight that an item of rigging can lift in a specified situation. The SWL on rigging has been replaced by the WLL as the preferred method.
If the WLL is thought of as an assessment of the maximum load an item could lift under ideal conditions, the SWL (if the term is going to be used) can now best be thought of as being a derating of WLL, following an assessment by a competent person of the maximum load the item can sustain under the conditions in which the item is being used.
Self-climbing tower crane
A tower crane using its own motive power to extend its height. Self-climbing cranes are not to be confused with self-erecting cranes.
Self-erecting tower crane
A tower crane with the capability of self-erection. Self-erecting cranes are not be confused with self-climbing cranes.
Reference: Section 2 and Schedule 1 Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992. HSWA 2015 replaces the HSE Act 1992.
The HSE Act defines “Serious Harm” as:
- death or
- any of the following conditions that amounts to or results in permanent loss of bodily function, or temporary severe loss of bodily function:
- respiratory disease, noise induced hearing loss, neurological disease, cancer, dermatological disease, communicable disease, musculoskeletal disease, illness caused by exposure to infected material, decompression sickness, poisoning, vision impairment, chemical or hot- metal burn of eye, penetrating wound of eye, bone fracture, laceration, crushing.
- amputation of body part.
- burns requiring referral to a specialist medical practitioner or specialist outpatient clinic.
- loss of consciousness from lack of oxygen
- loss of consciousness, or acute illness requiring treatment by a medical practitioner, from absorption, inhalation, or ingestion, of any substance.
- any harm that causes the person harmed to be hospitalised for a period of 48 hours or more commencing within 7 days of the harm’s occurrence.
The wheels or pulleys located in a hook block, boom head, or other part of the crane boom on which the line runs.
Reference: Section 2 Health and Safety in Employment Act 1992. The HSWA 2015 replaces the HSE Act 1992.
The HSE Act defines “Significant Hazard” as:
A hazard that is an actual or potential cause or source of:
- serious harm; or
- harm (being harm that is more than trivial) the severity of whose effects on any person depend (entirely or among other things) on the extent or frequency of the person’s exposure to the hazard; or
- harm that does not usually occur, or usually is not easily detectable, until a significant time after exposure to the hazard.
The rotary motion of the crane, boom or load in a horizontal plane.
Slewing mobile crane
Any type of mobile crane and includes truck loader, crawler and non-slewing articulated cranes.
The ability of a crane to resist tipping. To be stable, a crane must be set up as per the manufacturer’s specifications.
A designated safety observer who is responsible for the sole task of observing and warning the crane operator against the crane’s encroachment into the exclusion zone.
The spotter must not carry out other tasks, such as dogging duties.
The ability of the crane structure to support its own weight and to support and move a load without breaking or collapsing.
A load which is attached, normally from above, to a lifting point normally by means of slings or chains. A suspended load should also be attached to at least one other fixed point by means of Restraint Lines to prevent the load being a freely suspended load.
Suspended work platform
A platform suspended from the cranes hook.
A boom that incorporates telescopically extendable element in the boom structure.
Extending and retracting the oom – in and out.
When carrying out a test lift the load should be lifted just clear of the ground to ensure the crane can safely lift the actual weight.
A concrete element cast typically onsite in a horizontal position.
Total load weight
The combined weight of the load to be lifted plus the weight of hook blocks, slings, shackles, spreaders, chains and any other specific lifting or handling equipment required to carry out the lifting operation. The total load must always be less than or equal to the SWL.
The movement of the crane along the runway. (Gantry cranes).
The movement of the trolley from one end of the bridge to the other. (Gantry cranes).
When carrying out a trial lift the crane is operated through the required range of movement without a load to check crane radius and capacities and to identify any proximity hazards.
The trolley carries the hoist across the bay along the bridge girder(s) traversing the span.
The unit consisting of both the hoist and the trolley frame. In situations where more than one hoist is required on one crane, both hoists can be supplied on a single trolley or on separate trolleys.
Truck (vehicle) loader crane
(Also known “lorry loader” and “vehicle loader” cranes):
means a combination of a load carrying vehicle (or truck) and an articulated or luffing / slewing / telescoping jib crane used for the handling of goods on or off the vehicle.
Condition under which the load block or load suspended from the hook becomes jammed against the crane structure preventing further winding up of the hoist drum. It can result in the hoist motor pulling the rope until it breaks and drops the load.
Unique identification number (for cranes and lifting equipment)
A unique number given to a crane or item of lifting equipment for registration, certification and tracing purposes.
Upper / lower limit device
Prevents the hoist from winding the hook into the hoist drum or winding the hoist rope off the hoist drum.
Weight load indicator
See Safe load indicator.
A cylindrical component that rotates to store and dispense line / rope. It is located at the heal end of the boom.
Hoisting and lowering the hook block and load – up and down.
Health and Safety at Work Act 2015. See the HSWA for further information.
In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires, a worker means an individual who carries out work in any capacity for a PCBU, including work as--
(a) an employee; or
(b) a contractor or subcontractor; or
(c) an employee of a contractor or subcontractor; or
(d) an employee of a labour hire company who has been assigned to work in the business or undertaking; or
(e) an outworker (including a homeworker); or
(f) an apprentice or a trainee; or
(g) a person gaining work experience or undertaking a work trial; or
(h) a volunteer worker; or
(i) a person of a prescribed class
Health and Safety at Work Act 2015. See the HSWA for further information.
The HSWA defines a workplace as--
(a) means a place where work is being carried out, or is customarily carried out, for a business or undertaking; and
(b) includes any place where a worker goes, or is likely to be, while at work.
(a) a vehicle, vessel, aircraft, ship, or other mobile structure; and
(b) any waters and any installation on land, on the bed of any waters, or floating on any waters.
Working load limit
The maximum load that can be applied to a product straight line pull.
Measured parallel to the ground from the centreline of the cranes slew ring (around which the crane turns) to the centreline of the crane hook.
Zone of influence
The area beneath outriggers, tracks or wheels upon which pressure is exerted.